Phase Noise Reference

All oscillators and signal sources exhibit phase noise of some sort.   This reference material is provided to assist in understanding the sources of phase noise,  how it is characterized and the effects of phase noise on the performance of communication systems.

If you have any comments or questions,  please let us know ( )  we would like to hear from you and will do our best to assist.

This material may be read sequentially using the NEXT link on each page.



Our apologies - not all sections are available. 


What is Phase Noise?

What is Phase and Amplitude Noise?.

Phase Modulation Review

Frequency Modulation Review

Narrowband Phase and Frequency Modulation Approximations

Definition of Single Sideband Phase Noise

Spectrum of a VCO Modulated by White Noise


Phase Noise in Receivers

Reciprocal Mixing - how LO phase noise affects selectivity.

How LO Phase noise affects received SNR - Frequency Modulation

Effect of LO phase noise on digital modulation systems 


Phase Noise in Transmitters

Spectral Masks for transmitters - don't build a jammer!

LO Phase Noise results in transmitting a noise signal 


Measuring Phase Noise

Measuring phase noise using a spectrum analyser

Other techniques


Where does Phase Noise come from?

Phase noise in oscillators - Leeson Model

Extended Leeson Model

Minimizing oscillator phase noise.

References to Non-Linear analysis


Glossary of Terms



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Copyright 1999 - 2010 Applied Radio Labs      Last modified: February 07, 2010